AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT PIPE SPECIFICATIONS All pipe is to be made of a long hole surrounded by metal or plastic centered around the hole. All pipe is to be hollow throughout the entire length, do not use holes of different length than the pipe. The i.d. (inside diameter) of all pipe must not exceed the o.d. (outside diameter) otherwise the holes will be on the outside. All pipe is to be supplied with nothing in the hole so that water, steam or other stuff can be put inside at a later date. All pipe should be supplied without rust, this can be more readily applied at the job site. note: some vendors are now able to supply prerusted pipe. If available in your area, this product is recommended as it will save a great deal of time on the job site. All pipe over 500ft (153 metres) in length should have the words “long pipe” clearly painted on each end so the contractor will know if it is a long pipe. Pipe over 2 miles (3.2 km) in length must also have the words “long pipe” painted in the middle so the contractor will not have to walk the entire length of pipe to determine whether or not it is a long pipe or short pipe. All pipe over 6” (152mm) in diameter must have the words “large pipe” painted on it so the contractor will not mistake it for a short pipe. Flanges must be used on all pipe. Flanges must have holes for bolts quite seperate from the big hole in the middle. When ordering 90 degree, 45 degree or 30 degree elbows, be sure to specify right or left hand, otherwise you will end up going the wrong way. Also be sure to specify to your vendor whether you want level, uphill or downhill pipe. if you use downhill pipe for going uphill, the water will flow the wrong way. All couplings should have either right or left hand threads but do not mix the threads, otherwise as the coupling is being screwed on one pipe, it is unscrewed from the other. All pipes shorter than 1/8" (3 mm) are very uneconomical in use, requiring many joints. They are generally known as "washers". Joints in pipes for piping water must be watertight. Those pipes for compressed air, however, need only be airtight. Lengths of pipes may be welded or soldered together. This method is not recommended for concrete or vitreous clay pipes. Other items are often confused with pipes. These include: Conduit, Tube, Tunnel, Duct, Culvert, Straw or Drain. Use only genuine pipes. When shortening pipes, ensure to shorten the length. Shortening the height or width produces two troughs, which are open ended holes.