You take a cage, with 5 monkeys. In it you place a bunch of bananas so arranged that taking a banana produces electric shock. You wait until all 5 monkeys have learned not to touch the bananas. You replace one of the monkeys. You switch off the electric shock arrangement. The new monkey goes to take a banana, but is prevented from doing so by the other 4. You wait until the new monkey has learned not to take a banana, even though taking a banana will not now produce a shock. Repeat the process of replacing an original monkey with a new one. Eventually you will have 5 monkeys who know not to take a banana, but don't know why. This is how policy is formulated.